Energy Consumption Diversification (ECD)  (Updated: August 2021)    
The variety of energy sources has increased since the 1990s. However, this issue does not automatically imply that all countries follow similar energy diversification patterns or use similar energy sources. Therefore, we introduce a comparable index to measure energy mixes (portfolio) and analyze the diversification pattern in different countries over decades. The energy portfolio diversification is expected to occur from traditional sources of energy (fossil fuels) to new sources of energy (renewables).                 
Please cite the following paper when you use this data:  Gozgor, G., & Paramati, S.R. (2021). Does Energy Diversification Cause an Economic Slowdown? Evidence from a Newly Constructed Energy Diversification Index.CESifo Working Paper, No. 9247.

Recalculated KOF Indices of Economic Globalization (RCEGI)  (Updated: August 2021)
The KOF indices of globalization are the most used globalization measures in the international economics literature, but it uses the nominal trade openness measure to construct the globalization index. I use real trade openness instead of nominal trade openness and recalculate the KOF economic globalization index.

Please cite the following paper when you use this data:  Gozgor, G. (2018). Robustness of the KOF Index of Economic Globalization. The World Economy, 41(2), 414-430.

Years in the General Agreement Trade and Tariffs (GATT) or the World Trade Organization (WTO) (Updated: August 2021)

I provide a useful instrumental variable, which measures how many years a country has been a GATT or the WTO member.

Please cite the following paper when you use this data: Gozgor, G. (2020). The Role of Economic Uncertainty in Rising Populism in the EU. CESifo Working Paper, No. 8499.

The Fragility of Export Markets Indices (FEMI) (Updated: August 2021)

We introduce three new indicators for measuring uncertainty in Turkey’s export markets from 1996Q1 to 2021Q2. Our indicators are based on World Uncertainty, World Trade Uncertainty, and World Pandemic Uncertainty indices. 

Please cite the following paper when you use this data:  Fang, J., Gozgor, G., Pekel, S. (2020). Where You Export Matters: Measuring Uncertainty in Turkey's Export Markets. CESifo Working Paper Series, No. 8404.

Macroeconomic and Financial Uncertainty Index in Turkey (TEFUI) (Updated: September 2021)

We measure the level of economic and financial uncertainty in Turkey. The measure used is based on an internet search-based strategy and develops the ‘Turkish Economic and Financial Uncertainty Index’ (TEFUI).  

Please cite the following paper when you use this data:  Bilgin, M.H., Demir, E., Gozgor, G., Karabulut, G., & Kaya, H. (2019). A Novel Index of Macroeconomic Uncertainty for Turkey Based on Google-Trends. Economics Letters, 184, 108601.



Climate Change Economics

2008 - 2012

Istanbul University

PhD in Economics


International Economics

International Political Economy

2006 - 2008

Istanbul University

MA in Economics

2002 - 2006

Istanbul University

BA in Econometrics